Twenty-three of the thirty-eight hips that had been subluxated or dislocated became stable in the reduced position after the transfer operation. Every hip that had been stable before the transfer remained stable, and thirty-seven patients who had been brace-dependent became brace-free.
We concluded that transfers of the iliopsoas or external oblique muscles are useful adjuncts in the treatment of paralytic disorders of the hips. Intravascular injections of India ink in the femora of adult dogs revealed the existence of two distinct vascular systems in the cortex.
One courses through the entire thickness of the cortex and is a regular, longitudinal network of uniform capillaries which is in continuity with the periosteal and endosteal networks. That system, primarily transverse, anastomoses in the haversian canals with the capillaries of the first system. Therefore, the merging of the two networks occurs primarily in the middle layer of the cortex.
The direction of the arterial blood flow in the mature animal is predominantly centrifugal, while the venous drainage is centripetal. In the immature animal, the contribution of the periosteal network is much greater.
Because the two cortical systems are profusely anastomosed with each other and with the periosteal and endosteal circulatory networks, the blood can flow in either direction, depending on physiological conditions.
A study of 221 claw fingers of fifty-one leprosy patients with ulnar or combined ulnar and median-nerve paralysis showed that the severity of the deformity was determined mostly by the completeness of paralysis of intrinsci muscles, and to a lesser extent by the duration of paralysis. There was no predilection for severe deformity in any one finger.
Recurrent dislocation of the extensor tendon from the knuckle of the metacarpophalangeal joint was observed mostly in fingers that were completely deprived of all intrinsic muscles. Flexing the wrist facilitated opening of the claw finger, but the effect was more evident at the metacarphophalangeal joint than at the proximal interphalangeal joint.
Malignant hyperthermia is an inherited muscular disorder and a cause of sudden death in afflicted patients. Stress arising from tramuma, surgery, and other causes can initiate the syndrome.
We studied the types of orthopaedic problems commonly seen in patients with this condition as well as the clinical manifestations and pathophysiology of the syndrome. Recognition, management, and understanding of the pathophysiology of malignant hyperthermia can be aided by a study of its similarities to porcine stress syndrome. This triangle is an electric polarizing system, which directs the electronic orbitals of the phosphates in two diverging directions, starting from the calcium ion and going to the two sodium ions. The above-mentioned polarization helps, at the opportune moment, the breaking of the high-energy bond and the delivery of two waves of electronic excitation.
In the stage which precedes the recovery of the high-energy bond, one magnesium ion takes the position of the calcium ion, and two potassium ions replace the two sodium ions. These ions form a polarizing system, which directs the electronic orbitals of the ADP and phosphoric acid molecule in two converging directions, starting from the two potassium ions and arriving at the magnesium ion.
This polarization favours the building of the high-energy bond, when two waves of electronic excitation arising from a donor molecule arrive at the level of the two phosphates which must be united. A survey of developments in the social security systems of more than 125 countries from 1971 to 1975 found that most programs are undergoing significant growth.